To research demographic, fitness position, and comorbidity differences between schizophrenia caregivers, and non-caregiver controls, and you will between schizophrenia caregivers, or any other caregivers, bivariate analyses was basically performed.
Covariates listed significantly more than (class and you will fitness properties) was in fact inserted with the an individual logistic regression design so you’re able to assume taking worry to help you an adult patient which have schizophrenia versus. not taking worry. Various other separate logistic regression design try set you back assume providing care so you’re able to a grown-up diligent with schizophrenia against. those individuals getting manage grownups having a disorder aside from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was indeed paired so you can non-caregiver or other caregiver participants to your propensity get using the “greedy” coordinating algorithm . A 1:2 complimentary ratio was observed, per schizophrenia caregiver are coordinated to help you a couple non-caregiver handle respondents and you may independently so you can several caregivers regarding most other standards. Post-fits, differences between these communities was re also-tested to verify sufficient matching. And additionally, the newest coordinating is actually restricted to make sure that every suits was indeed within this for each 5EU nation.
Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.
A total of 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 low-caregivers regulation and 14,341 caregivers from almost every other criteria was known thru 5EU NHWS across the 2010, 2011 and you will 2013. Within overall shot from 173,728 people along the 5EU, twenty-five.cuatro % were when you look at the France, 25.3 % for the Germany, 25.6 % in the uk, fourteen.0 % when you look at the Italy, and you will 9.6 % within the Spain.
The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater https://datingranking.net/atheist-dating/ comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).
After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).
Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).